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Panpa Bulletin : May 2011
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If you’d like to know about more, just call 1300 798 949 ... and prepare to be amazed! www.adsend.com.au 1300 798 949 Australia Fra nce Data deluge “TH E sexy job in the next ten years will be statisticians,” insists Google’s chief economist Hal Varian during an interview with the business jour- nal, the McKinsey Quarterly. “The ability to take data — to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualise it, to communicate it — that’s going to be a hugely important skill in the next decade.” We are now living in a world of “essentially free and ubiquitous data”. What is scarce, says Mr Var- ian, is people who know how to in- terpret and effectively communicate valuable, yet often boring, data sets bound-up in Excel spreadsheets. The influx of freely available data on the web has lead to the emer- gence of what has become known as ‘data journalism’. The Guardian and the New York Times have set up departments de- signed to deal with figuring out how to best communicate complex data sets to readers and online users. The emerging trend to commu- nicate these data sets is to create ‘data visualisations’ or ‘information visualisations’ – like a pie chart on steroids. These visualisations are often in- teractive, enabling readers to choose variables to see how they affect the outcome. The New York Times interactive visualisation for unemployment statistics allows users to see how age, race, gender and education affect the unemployment rate in the US. At the click of a button, readers can see that the unemployment rate sits at 3.7 percent for older, white, educated women and goes up to 48.5 percent for young, black, un- educated men. Amanda Cox, the graphics editor at the New York Times who worked on the unemployment visualisations, has become known as the ‘Queen of Infovis’ (information visualisation) and has a cult following. She comes from a maths and statistics background. But is a back- ground in statistics and graphic arts a necessity for data journalists? Simon Rogers, the editor of The Guardian’s Datablog, doesn’t think so. “I’m a regular news editor with a regular journalistic background. And my two colleagues don’t have statistical backgrounds at all,” he tells The Bulletin. He concedes they have contacts at the Royal Statistical Society to call on for help. “Having someone who will look at data in a journalistic way is of real value to a newspaper. You don’t want the search to get too abstract, or become too difficult for readers to understand.” For complex visualisations, it is the graphic designers who make or break a visualisation, according to Mr Rogers. “It is the designers who make the data look beautiful and different. “At first we thought everyone could do everything – research, clean the data, create the visualisa- tion – but what you need is people who know their way around data and can look at it journalistically, and then have people who can make things look good.” Although the Datablog team con- sists of just three people – Mr Rog- ers and two researchers – they have access to The Guardian’s graphic arts team who help them with complex graphics. Many visualisations have been cre- ated with free online software – tools which involve uploading an Excel spreadsheet and choosing from the myriad of prefab visualisations (See Tools and Tips box). But apart from the proliferation of free, online data visualisation software, what is so new about data journalism? Surely newspapers dig- ging through data sets and present- ing them in creative ways in print is nothing new? Mr Rogers says there’s been a con- vergence of trends which has given birth to the need for newspapers to hire data journalists. “There is a hell of a lot of data out there in the world,” he says. “One of the reasons for this is that govern- ments are using it as a proxy for being transparent, so suddenly you have a host of data easily accessible on sites like data.gov.au in Australia and data.govt.nz in New Zealand.” The Wikileaks war logs are an- other recent example. The second reason, according to Mr Rogers, is that “nobody trusts journalism or journalists anymore”. Providing data allows newspapers to show the root of a story through the original data set. Thirdly, news gathering is a col- laborative process and you can’t afford to exclude the readers from that process, says Mr Rogers. Crowdsourcing story ideas and al- lowing readers access to the original data sets so they can create their own visualisations has helped the Datablog flourish. “At first, we thought that it would be developers and techies using the Datablog site, but it’s not at all, it’s real people out there in the real world who want to know about the data behind the story.” Fairfax Media has been on the hunt since January for a data journal- ism editor but is yet to hire anyone. Mike van Niekerk, the former editor-in-chief of smh.com.au and theage.com.au (now the weekday editor of The Age) says that they are looking for someone with “quality journalism skills, highly-developed visual skills and a deep knowledge of software programs and web ap- plications”. He says that although it is possible one person could have all those at- tributes, Fairfax is hoping to have more than one person in place in the near future. Asked what advice Mr Rogers would give newspapers looking to devote resources to this form of jour- nalism, he says: “I don’t think that it is resource heavy, you have to have some basic software, much of which is available online for free. “It’s about being willing to experi- ment and to share with your readers. It’s important you are not passively chucking stuff out there but engag- ing with readers.” Museums and galleries £0.47 bn NOTES Personalsocialservice £1.6 3b n Localauthority £1 .23b n Central dept admin £ 1.48bn FinancialServices Compensation Scheme£0.32bn Bradford & Bin gley Ic esa ve (Landsbanki) debt £0.13bn Health & social ser v ices Highways Agen cy £14.4bn +9.4% £4.5bn £4 .4bn Capitalgrantsto privatesector GLAtransportgrants £3.7bn £2.6bn £2.2bn Capitalsupportto localauthorities Railways Busserviceoperators’grant£0.5bn Maritime&Coastguard£0.1bn Netcapitalexpenditure onfixedassets £2 .0bn Clean fuels & vehicles £0.029bn Accident investigation £0.018bn Governmentcar & despatch agency£0.003bn Ports&shipping£0.3bn Olympicvenuestransport£0.2bn Admin£0.2bn OfficeforSecurity& Counter-terrorism £ 1.02b n NationalPolicing Improvement Agency£0.54bn SeriousOrganised CrimeAgency £0.4 4b n Identity&Passport Service£0.21bn IndependentPolice ComplaintsCommission £ 0.04bn UKBorderAgency £1.89 b n M inistry of Justice Criminalinjuriescompensation £0.1 bn Prisons& probation LegalAid HMCourtsService Judicialpensions £0.3 bn NationalOffender ManagementService Securityservices £1 .86 bn Office of the Thi rd S ector £0.22bn BBC media monitoring £0.02bn Social Exclusion Task Force £0.001b n V&A £0.04bn Libraries£0.12bn Royalparks £0.02 bn Tourism £0.05b n Architecture&history£0.20bn ArtsCouncil£0.45bn Sport£0.61bn Olympics£0.40bn Tategallery £0.06bn BritishMuseum£0.05bn NaturalHistoryMuseum£0.05bn Dep a rtm ent f or Inter na tiona l Dev elop ment £7.09bn +15.2% Confl ict prev e ntion £0.02 bn El imi nati ng pove rty Multilateral aid effectiveness Su b-S ah aran Af rica Asia £0.85bn EU prog ramme s £0.81bn Development£0.48bn Restof the world £0.39bn Central debts £0.3bn Health Protection Agency £0.23bn +15.0% CrownProsecutionService £0.6 8b n n/c FoodStandardsAgency £0.15bn -3.3% Environment Agency £1.28bn -1.8% Environment£0.97bn Environmentalemergencies £0.98bn Climate change £0.02bn ForestryCommission£0.04bn Ruralcommunities £0.09 b n Departmental operations£0.21bn Farming&food £0.17b n RuralPaymentsAgency £0 .28b n Consumption& production£0.22bn Depa r tment of Ener gy & ClimateChange £2.52bn -31.6% Devolved spending Northern Ireland Policing& security£1.07bn Prisons£0.13bn Compensationagency £0.02bn Public prosecution service£0.03bn Criminal justice £0.03bn YouthJusticeAgency£0.02bn BloodySundayinquiry £0.00 3b n Northern Ireland Office £ 1. 37bn -13% Dep a rtm ent f or Env ir onment, Food &RuralAffairs  £3.02bn +4.1% Nuclear decommissioning Low-c arbon UK £0.8 6 bn Cleanenergyoverseas £0.1 0bn I ntern ation al de al onclimatechange £0.004 bn Foreign and Commonwealth Office  £2.24bn +1.3% Delivering foreign policy £0.95 bn FCO prog ramme s £0.2 6 bn Subscriptions to UN &other bodies £0.18bn BBC World Service £0.27bn British Council £0.2 0bn C onfli ct pre ve ntion £0.47 bn AttorneyGeneral'sOffice £0.01b n -15. 0% CharityCommissionforEngland&Wales £0.03bn -0.3% Promoting UK business UKAEA pe ns ion schemes £0.28bn Professional support £0. 31 bn I nnov ati on £0.4bn Electoral Commission £0.02 bn - 0.9% GovernmentActuary's Dept £0.02bn +15.7% House ofCommons  £0.45 bn + 8.9% House of Lords £0.12bn +12.2% WaterServicesRegulation Authority(Ofwat) £0.02bn +14.1% UKTrade&Investment £0.09 bn - - 5.1% TreasurySolicitors' Department £0.00 4b n -23. 8% SeriousFraudOffice £ 0.04 bn - 20.5% Postal Services Commission £0.01 bn - 19.1% ParliamentaryCounselOffice £0.01b n -4 .9% Office ofRail Regulation £0.03b n - 4.5% Office of Gas& Electricity Markets (Ofgem) £0.05bn +19.7% Office of Fair Trading £0.07 bn + 17.9% Office of Communications (Ofcom) (from government funding) £0.13bn -0 .2% National School ofGovernment £0.0004bn - 79 .7% NationalSavings& Investments £0.1 8b National AuditOffice £0.07 bn - 0.4% HMCrown Prosecution ServiceInspectorate £ 0.005b n +16 .1% O ffice for Standardsin Education (Ofsted) £0.20bn -4.3% Dep a rtment for Transport Sixth forms (through Learning &SkillsCouncil) UKStatistics Au thor ity £0.21bn -2 .8% Finance& sustainablegrowth Scotland Office £0.01bn +1.1% £4.47bn £3.5bn £2.1bn £1.1bn Debt interest £30.95bn  -0.1% Department of Health  £115.85bn +5.5% Total spending, 2009/2010 £669.26bn +4.7% on 2008/09 Hospital & Community £93.04bn +6% NHS £100.2bn +7% Child trust fund £0.3 1 bn Tax credits £22.17bn Chi ld benefit £ 11.93 bn Deptof Communities &Local Gove rn me nt £39.8bn +5.4% Strong commu nit ies £2.4bn £9.4bn £28.6bn +1% Housing Spending by local & regionalgovernment £26.25bn + 14.4% Her Majesty’s Treasury £7.88bn +3.0% Cabine t Office £7.0 bn Department for Business, Innovati on &Skills Higher & fu rthe r edu cati on £19.25bn £5.5 7 bn Universities £14.53bn Science £3.79bn Fur ther e duca tion £4 .82 bn Education £ 1.83b n Region a l devel op ment £0.4 2b n Social d evelop men t £0 .58bn Em plo ymen t £0.77b n Finance £0.2 1b n Agriculture £0.24 b n Environment £0.15 bn Culture,arts&leisure £0.11b n Trade,enterprise £ 0.21b n £9.5bn -42.7% £9.3bn  – 1.3% Pharmaceuticalservices £ 1.14bn Opthalmic services £0 .47bn Ho usi ng benefi t £19.98bn Disability benefit s £18.98bn Benefits spending in Great Britain £147.77bn +7% State pensions £66.9bn £8. 34 bn £8.23bn £6.7bn Paybill& admi n £ 6.5 7bn Department for Work &Pensions  £156.15bn +7.4% Jobseekers allowance £3.6bn Over-75s TV licences £0.5 5 bn Winter fuel payments £2 .74 bn S tat utory mate rnit y pay £1.78bn I ncome s up port Pe ns ion cred it Incapacity benefit NHS pe ns ions £1 2.8 2bn Family health services £7.8bn Police £6.4bn £11.08bn + 3.4% Home Office Operating costs £32.80bn +11% Army £13.68bn Equipment &support £1 3.87b n Royal Nav y £7.95 b n £4.2bn Royal Air Force £7.0bn Field units £1 0.8b n Pay& pensions £5.4 7b n Operations Central Command Aircraft carriers £0.4bn Afghanistan £3.8b n +44% Roya l Ma ri nes £0.6 bn Iraq £0.34bn -76% War pensions £ 1.02b n Frigates& destroyers Ministry of Defence  £44.63bn +3.7% Submarines RAF r egt &ground services Intelligence& reconnaissance aircraft Navalaircraft Combat aircraft £1.2bn £2.0bn £1.6bn £1.5bn £2.5bn £1.8b n £1.4bn £34.76bn +10.1% De vol ved spending Scotland Health £11.76bn Education Justice £1.09bn Ruralaffairs, environment £0.6 5b n NHS&teachers’pensions £2.65bn £6.07 bn £ 2.75b n £2.65bn School standards Investmentin schoolbuildings £ 0.38b n Academies School meals £0.01 bn Ch ild ren &families Sure Start Young people £67.29bn +5.6% Department for Children, Schools &Families Sc hoo ls £46.08bn +6% Teachers' pensionscheme £1 0.46bn £2.2 1b n £1 .56 bn Learning & Skills Council £6.3 bn £4.9 bn £ 1.27 bn £1.5 bn £2.83bn Research cou nci ls £3 .43 bn Health and socialservices Local g ove rnme nt and social justice Children & education £ 1.8 5bn E conomy & trans port £1.17bn £14.8bn +1.3% £5.8 7b n £ 4.3 9bn Devol ved s pending Wa les Wales Office £0.01bn +18% £2.53bn £1.54bn £2.1bn £1.7 bn Department for Culture Media &Sport £6.97bn +3.3% NationalLottery Broadcasting & media S4C £0.10 bn FilmCouncil£0.04bn D CMS £5. 14 bn £3.29bn The figures give a picture of majorexpenditure butexcludelocal governmentspending notcontrolledby central government. We don'thave room toshoweverything— some programmes are just toosmall togo here, butthisgives a flavour ofwhere yourtax poundsgo. Italsoexcludesgovernmentdepartmentswhoare predominantly financed by theirincome, such asthe CrownEstate orthe ExportCreditsGuarantee Department. The totals here add uptomore thanthe total budget, because some ofthe smaller government departments are funded via the larger ones, such as the Parliamentary Counsel Office, fundedvia the CabinetOffice. ALL %CHANGES TAKE ACCOUNTOFINFLATION  Interestpaidon the publicdebt Treasury spendingin2008-09 and2009-10 wasdominatedby the impact ofinterventions in the financialsector - the figure shown here isgross spending. Infact, in2009-10 the net effectof financial stability activities wastoyieldincome to the Treasury of £27.684bn - so th e netfigure forinterventionswould be £12.966bn TheRural Payments Agency distributesCAP payments - covered bytransfersfrom EU sodonot show upas netspendinghere  Benefit spending excludeschildbenefit, guardians' allowance, widow’s pensions,statutory paternity pay, statutory adoption pay -these paidby HMRC, MoD , DBERR respectively  Excludes spending onfamily healthservices. GP  Running costs includes salaries, hospitalitybudgets, home and overseasaccommodationcosts  Is higherthan budgetdue toextra from Treasury reservesto coveroperations. The total amounts may notsum as there are overlappingamounts, ie betweenoperations andrunning costs  The amountofgovernment fundingfrom BISandDCMS, rest from licence fees from broadcasters and media organisations  Budgetincrease between2008-09and 2009-10isdue to a revaluationofthe parliamentary estate following movement inthe property market  Ministry ofJustice - the prisonservice organisational budget has become the responsiblity ofthe National Offenders Management Service SOURCES:DEPARTMENTALRESOURCEACCOUNTS,INSTITUTEFOR FISCALSTUDIES,PUBLICEXPENDITURESTATISTICALANALYSES(PESA) RESEARCH:SIMONROGERS,AMISEDGHI,GEMMATETLOW GRAPHIC:JENNYRIDLEY,MICHAELROBINSON HMRevenue &Customs  £38.90bn +11.1% Financial stability £40.65bn  - 53% £13.2bn -88.1% Bank recapitalisation (Lloyds& RBS) £38.42bn Nor ther n Ro ck £ 10.06bn £2.55bn £ 1.83b n As George Osborne sets out the Comprehensive Spending Review this week, the Guardian and the Institute for Fiscal Studies present the ultimate guide to how central government spends our money - and how it has changed since last year. From hospital beds to missiles, this is what happens to your taxes would you want to attend a data journalism workshop headed by Simon Rogers of The Guardian at the PANPA Future Forum in August – email firstname.lastname@example.org to express your interest Leading newspapers the world over are investing in data journalism to create visualisation like this one, from The Guardian, which captured UK government spending Rebecca Leaver NPA www.panpa.org.au | MAY 2011 | The PANPA Bulletin Police fear 10,000 hacked AS many as 10,000 people could have had their phones hacked by associates and staff working for the News of the World, according to British police. The hacking scandal, which began in 2005 when a royal voicemail was intercepted, has become the greatest current global scandal in journalism. More than 50 investigators are working on the case, trawling through emails and phone records, including those of staff at the News of the World, the largest-selling tabloid in Britain. The publisher, News International, says that despite the scandal at has cap- tivated Britain, the News of the World is still selling strongly. It was also one of the biggest win- ners at the recent UK press awards, tak- ing four trophies. “You talk about a reputation crisis – actually, the business is doing really well,” James Murdoch, the chairman and chief executive of News Corpora- tion’s international businesses, told Bloomberg TV. “It shows what we were able to do is really put this problem into a box.” News International has told lawyers for actress Sienna Miller that it would pay £100,000 in an out of court settle- ment or she would “get nothing”, ac- cording to a report in The Independent, in the UK. The investigation – called Operation Weeting – involves detectives sifting through 92,000 pages of seized records. There is also speculation that victims’ personal emails have also been hacked. News International earlier this month issued an “unreserved” apology for the hacking and said it had been “unauthorised.” It established a £15 mil- lion fund to pay compensation claims. A frenzied UK media is speculating the publisher will need at least £40 million to settle with a combination of politicians, celebrities and sports stars, who say their mobile phones were hacked by journalists at the top-selling paper between 2005 and 2007. “Past behaviour at the News of the World in relation to voicemail intercep- tion is a matter of genuine regret,” the publisher said. Tools and Tips ‘How to be a data journalist’ from The Guardi- an’s Datablog: http ://bit.ly/h7rWQ3 Free online visualisation tools Many Eyes: www-958.ibm.com Google fusion tables: www.google.com/fu- siontables/Home Tableau: www.tableausoftware.com/info- aesthetics Yahoo Pipes : www.pipes.yahoo.com Google Public Data: www.google.com/pub- licdata/home Places to source data: Data.gov (US); Data.gov.au (Australia); Data. govt.nz (New Zealand); Data.gov.uk (United Kingdom) Wikileaks – http://184.108.40.206/ www.eldis.org - A gateway to global inter- national development data www.infomine.ucr.edu - Scholarly Internet resources and databases www.docuticker.com - A daily update of new reports from government agencies, NGOs, think tanks, and other groups www.intute.ac.uk - A subject catalogue and search engine managed by various UK aca- demic institutions • • • • • • • • • • •