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Panpa Bulletin : February 2006
cooling fountain solution can help in keeping the print process under stable conditions. Conclusion through tests results: A series of experiments were per- formed using three fountains and water. Their performances were analysed. For the analysis of differ- ent fountain solution, the following experiments took place. • Determining a dosage curve offountainA,B&Cforthetapand hard water with the help of pH and conductivity meter. This curve gives different concentrations with re- gard to their pH and conductivity. • Measuring surface tension of fountain A, B & C for tap and hard water by using stalagnometer • Viscosity measurement of fountain solution A, B & C is done by Oswald's viscometer. • Specific gravity of different fountain solution A, B & C is meas- ured by specific gravity bottle. The result has been summarised in the following tables: Dilution ratio 2% From Table 1.1 and 1.2, we can see that fountain solution A has the lowest surface tension. The surface tension, pH, and conductivity were measured for tap water and hard water. Fountain A resulted in faster ink and water balance on the press. All 3 fountains operated at accept- able pH values, although the one with lowest surface tension worked with reduced machine downtime (press stoppages), lower frequency of blanket cleaning, lower water settings and comparatively sharper prints with good contrast in shadow areas and less tonal value changes. [Table2] Tap water and dilution ratio 2% Table 2 shows that the same foun- tain A water gave the highest viscos- ity and when used with alcohol the viscosity was further increased. This gave a better-controlled water film effective in proper wetting of the plate. Also specific gravity of foun- tain gets reduced when alcohol is added. The benefits of these findings will help printers understand how sur- face tension, viscosity, and specific gravity of a fountain solution helps in selection of a fount concentrate. A fount with lower surface tension, higher viscosity and lower specific gravity proves better on the press (as concluded from tables 1and 2) giving increased productivity. Further, when using recircula- tion systems, regularly cleaned and refrigerated systems give bet- ter results as chilled water film has maximum viscosity. Hence we could analyse from our study why one fount is claimed to be better than other as the values of conduc- tivity, surface tension, viscosity and specific gravity play a vital role in its performance. Also with the help of measuring devices the printer will very accurately meet the require- ments of the dampening systems to ensure a trouble free print run. Prof. Madhura Mahajan has worked in the P. V. G's College of Engineering and Technology (India), Department of Printing Engineering, Offset Machines section for the last eight years. She is presently working on the effects of dosing of fountain solutions during printing and press standardization. KEYBOARD shortcuts have been there since the beginning, yet there are far too many paginators and designers who don't learn or un- derstand the keyboard shortcuts built into design and pagination software. Some software, like Adobe InDe- sign, allow you to define and edit your own keyboard shortcuts. Still, some designers and paginators in- sist that they are actually faster with a mouse than if they were to use the keyboard shortcuts to work on a page. Bunk. In my 16-plus years of con- sulting, I've probably designed and paginated thousands of mockups --- and I just can't imagine doing that without the power of keyboard shortcuts to assist me in my work. In the past couple of years, I've made it a point to become "bilin- gual" in shortcuts for both QuarkX- Press and InDesign. And it wasn't a difficult decision to make or a dif- ficult task to master. In many cases, the shortcuts are identical or at least similar. Yes, sometimes the transition from one client's Quark pages to those of an InDesign client made me perform mental gymnastics. Still the overall time and effort involved in creat- ing a mockup is much less than the time I'd spend 'mousing around.' Imagine: every time you want to copy or paste an item, you mouse up to the menu, hope for good eye-hand coordination (after a few hours already spent at the compu- ter), find the exact line for 'copy,' let the menu close, go back into the same menu, hope again for good eye-hand coordination, find the exact line for 'paste,' and then go on to something else. Seems a lot easier to me---and to hundreds of thousands of other computer us- ers---to just use Command+C, then Command+V. In my work with designers and paginators, I'm occasionally struck by the realisation that some of them don't even know the shortcuts that are available to them. Here's one example: take a dozen mug shots of basketball players that you want to align in three rows of four photos, across a package three columns wide. In QuarkXPress, this is a chore if you're setting up guides and nudging the photos North, South, East and West until they align. But there's a simpler method: use the command+, shortcut for 'space/ align items' to set up the 12 mug shots with equal spacing between rows and columns. As a test for this column, I aligned the photos in less than 30 seconds. It just can't be done in the same amount of time with guidelines and nudging. Lack of knowledge about soft- ware shortcuts often is the result of lack of training --- but not always. Sometimes staffers fail to take ad- vantage of training by not using shortcuts --- and, over time, forget- ting them. Regardless, to those who insist that they can do the job just as well and just as quickly without key- board shortcuts, I repeat; Bunk. Ed Henninger is an independent newspaper consultant and the Director of Henninger Consulting. Table1.1 Hard water pH Conductivity Surface Tension microsiemens/cm dyne / cm Fountain A 5.4 2250 47.5 Fountain B 5.3 2100 55 Fountain C 5.2 2150 55 Tap water pH Conductivity Surface Tension microsiemens/cm Dyne/cm Fountain A 4.6 1920 40 Fountain B 4.7 2030 48 Fountain C 5.0 2300 52 Table 1.2 Fountains Viscosity Viscosity Specific Specifiic of Fountain of Fountain gravity of gravity of + water + water fountain fountain + alcohol +water +water + alcohol Fountain A 0. 878 1.12448 1.00131 0.99161 Fountain B 0.84721 1.04746 1.00170 0.99384 Fountain C 0.8614 0.92423 1.00222 0.99410 Chilled water 0.86261 1.078269 0.99887 0.99384 Shortcuts are the key to speed in design Making the best use is a secret to saving time and effort as you design. By Ed Heninger. February 2006 PANPA BULLETIN | 39 PRODUCTION